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\input texinfo                         @c -*-texinfo-*-
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@c $Id: Protocol-A.texi,v 1.15 1998/08/09 19:01:34 ceder Exp $
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@c %**start of header
@setfilename protocol-a.info
@settitle LysKOM Protocol A
@setchapternewpage odd
@c %**end of header
@iftex
@parindent 0pt
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@font@tensltt=cmsltt10
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@begin tex
\global\def\rett#1{{\let\t\sltt\tt #1}}
\global\def\sltt#1{{\fam\ttfam\tensltt\let\t\rett #1}}
\global\let\t\sltt
@end tex
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@end iftex

@ifinfo
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This is the specification of LysKOM Protocol A v. 9.0
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Copyright @copyright{} 1995, 1996 Lysator ACS.
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Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
specification provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.
@end ifinfo

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@dircategory LysKOM
@direntry
* Protocol A: (protocol-a).             The LysKOM Protocol A specification.
@end direntry

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@titlepage
@sp 10
@title{LysKOM Protocol A}
@sp 2
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@subtitle{Protocol version 10.0}
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@sp 2
@author by the LysKOM Developers

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1995 Lysator ACS

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document
provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all
copies.

Modified versions of this document may be redistributed with the added
condition that all modifications not cleared with the LysKOM development group
are clearly marked and that the entire modified work be redistributed under the
same conditions as the original.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into
another language under the same conditions as for modified versions.

@end titlepage

@ifinfo
@node Top, Overview, (dir), (dir)
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
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This document specifies LysKOM Protocol A, version 9.0.
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FIXME: This document is not yet published.  The document you are looking
at has the version numbers all wrong.  This will be fixed before
publication.

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@menu
* Overview::
* Introduction::
* Data Types::
* Protocol Requests::
* Asynchronous Messages::
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* Error Codes::
* LysKOM Content Types::
* The User Area::
* Writing Clients::
* Indexes and Overviews::
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@end menu
@end ifinfo

@node Overview, Document Revision History, Top, Top
@chapter Overview

LysKOM is a conferencing system@footnote{Or in modern terms, enabling
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technology for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW).}. Similar
systems were QZ-KOM and PortaCOM@footnote{Also known as ``PottaKOM'' and
``BortaKOM.''}. The LysKOM system is copyrighted by Lysator Academic
Computing Society and distributed under conditions of the GNU Public
License. LysKOM and its documentation is provided ``as is'' without
warranty of any kind.
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This document specifies version 10.0 of protocol A used between a LysKOM
client and a LysKOM server. Anything described here as ``unspecified''
is liable to change in future protocol versions.
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This specification is the work of several people. The main contributors have
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been
Per Cederqvist @code{<ceder@@lysator.liu.se>}, 
David Byers @code{<byers@@lysator.liu.se>},
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@ifinfo
Pär
@end ifinfo
@iftex
P@"ar
@end iftex
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Emanuelsson @code{<pell@@lysator.liu.se>},
Thomas Bellman @code{<bellman@@lysator.liu.se>}, 
Lars Aronsson @code{<aronsson@@lysator.liu.se>},
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Linus Tolke @code{<linus@@lysator.liu.se>} and
@ifinfo
Kent Engström
@end ifinfo
@iftex
Kent Eng@-str@"om@penalty-10000
@end iftex
@code{<kent@@lysator.liu.se>}.

The LysKOM developers can be reached by email to @code{lyskom@@lysator.liu.se}.

@menu 
* Document Revision History::
* Protocol Revision History::
* Protocol Design Principles::
* Notation::
@end menu

@node Document Revision History, Protocol Revision History, Overview, Overview
@section Document Revision History

@table @asis
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@item 9.0: @i{In progress}
Protocol version 9 is begin developed and this document needs to be
updated.

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@item 8.0: 1995-11-10
Protocol version 8 is being documented. This specification was translated to
English and converted to Texinfo by David Byers.

@item 7.1: 1995-01-08.
Protocol and document revision history were added by Per Cederqvist. Outline
mode was used to make the document more manageable. This version was
distributed with lyskomd 1.7.1.

@item 7.0: 1994-12-31.
The first specification with a version number. All calls that had been added
since 1991-06-25 were documented. Pell and Per Cederqvist did the deed. This
version was distributed with lyskomd 1.7.0.

@item 1993-05-19.
Linus Tolke wrote comments for some calls that were without comments.

@item 1992-07-06.
Linus Tolke converted the document to ISO 8859-1.

@item 1991-08-12.
Per Cederqvist started using version control for documentation.

@item 1991-06-25.
Lars Aronsson documented the protocol that was in use at the time.
@end table

@node Protocol Revision History, Protocol Design Principles, Document Revision History, Overview
@section Protocol Revision History

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@subsection Protocol version 10.0
@table @asis
@item New Server Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item 85=get-collate-table
@item 86=create-text
@item 87=create-anonymous-text
@item 88=create-conf
@item 89=create-person
@item 90=get-text-stat
@item 91=get-conf-stat
@item 92=modify-text-info
@item 93=modify-conf-info
@item 94=get-info
@item 95=modify-system-info
@item 96=query-predefined-aux-items
@item 97=set-expire
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@item 98=query-read-texts
@item 99=get-membership
@item 100=add-member
@item 101=get-members
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@end itemize

@item Removed Server Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item  5=create-person
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@item  9=query-read-texts
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@item 10=create-conf
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@item 14=add-member
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@item 26=get-text-stat
@item 28=create-text
@item 36=get-info-old
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@item 46=get-membership-old
@item 48=get-members-old
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@item 50=get-conf-stat
@item 59=create-anonymous-text
@end itemize

@item New and New Modified Structures
@itemize @bullet
@item Aux-item
@item Aux-item-list
@item Conference
@item Info
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@item Member
@item Membership
@item Membership-Type
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@item Misc-info
@item Text-stat
@end itemize

@item New Asynchronous Messages
@itemize @bullet
@item async-deleted-text message
@item New async-new-text message
@end itemize
@end table

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@subsection Protocol version 9.0

@table @asis
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@item Added Commands
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@itemize @bullet
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@item 79=set-info: Can change server information.
@item 80=accept-async: Can select asynchronous messages to receive.
@item 81=query-async: Can query which messages are being send.
@item 82=user-active
@item 83=who-is-on-dynamic
@item 84=get-static-session-info
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@end itemize
@end table

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@subsection Protocol version 8.0

@table @asis 
@item Added Functionality
@itemize @bullet
@item
30=add-recipient: Can change recpt to cc_recpt and vice versa.
@item
21=set-conf-type: Accepts Conf-Type and Extended-Conf-Type.
@item
10=create-conf: Accepts Conf-Type and Extended-Conf-Type.
@end itemize

@item New Commands
@itemize @bullet
@item
77=set-last-read
@item
78=get-uconf-stat
@end itemize
@end table

@subsection Protocol version 7 (first implemented in lyskomd 1.7.0)

@table @asis
@item Added Functionality
@itemize @bullet
@item
53=send-message: Recipient can be a conference or a person.
@end itemize

@item New Commands
@itemize @bullet
@item
74=re-z-lookup
@item
75=get_version_info
@item
76=lookup_z_name
@end itemize

@item Other
@itemize @bullet
@item
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The asynchronous message 1=i-am-off has been removed
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@end itemize
@end table

@subsection Protocol Version 6 (first implemented in lyskomd 1.4.0)

@table @asis
@item New Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item
67=lookup_person
@item
68=lookup_conf
@item
69=set_client_version
@item
70=get_client_name
@item
71=get_client_version
@item
72=mark_text
@item
73=unmark_text
@end itemize
@end table


@subsection Protocol Version 5 (first implemented in lyskomd 1.3.0)

@table @asis
@item New Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item
65=re_lookup_person
@item
66=re_lookup_conf
@end itemize
@end table

@subsection Protocol Version 4 (first implemented in lyskomd 1.1.1)

@table @asis
@item New Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item
62=login
@item
63=who_is_on_ident
@item
64=get_session_info_ident
@end itemize
@end table

@subsection Protocol Version 3 (first implemented in lyskomd 1.1.0)

@table @asis
@item New Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item
61=find_previous_text_no
@item
60=find_next_text_no
@item
59=create_anonymous_text
@item
58=get_last_text
@end itemize
@end table

@subsection Protocol Version 2 (first implemented in lyskomd 0.30.0)

@table @asis
@item New Calls
@itemize @bullet
@item
57=set_user_area
@end itemize
@end table

@subsection Protocol Version 1 (first implemented in lyskomd 0.29.2)

@table @asis
@item New Calls
All calls from 0--56.
@end table


@node Protocol Design Principles, Notation, Protocol Revision History, Overview
@section Transport Protocol Requirements

LysKOM protocol A can be run on top of any reliable, bidirectional,
8-bit data stream. All current implementations use TCP/IP. At Lysator
port 4894 is used on the host @code{kom.lysator.liu.se}.

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Data in protocol A is ASCII clear text except within Hollerith strings,
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where arbitrary eight-bit characters are allowed. Data arguments are
separated by whitespace. The reason for this unorthodox design is that
the protocol should be usable from a text-only terminal, something that
is very useful during server and early client development.
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@node Notation, , Protocol Design Principles, Overview
@section Notation

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This specification uses a BNF-like grammar to describe the protocol and
its data elements. It does not use ASN.1 because we don't know ASN.1 and
probably wouldn't like it very much even if we did.
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Data fields have been given names that start with a lower-case letter.
Data types have names that start with an upper-case letter. The operator
@code{::=} defines the name to its left and @code{:} (a colon) specifies
a type. Comments start with @code{!} (exclamation mark) and alternatives
are separated by a @code{|} (vertical bar.) A @code{;} (semicolon)
terminates statements in the grammar. In some specifications there are
literal strings. There is to be no whitespace before or after literal
strings unless there is whitespace in the literal itself.
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@node Introduction, , , Top
@chapter Introduction

This chapter introduces the concepts used in LysKOM, such as articles,
conferences and sessions. 

@menu
* Articles ::
* Conferences ::
* Persons and Sessions ::
* The Misc-Info List ::
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* The Aux-Item List ::
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* Security ::
* Membership and Reading::
* Client-Server Dialog ::
@end menu


@node Articles, Conferences, , Introduction
@section Articles

An article is represented as a value of the type @code{Text-Stat} and a
string containing the article contents. An article will usually have one
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or more recipients and may be a comment or footnote to other articles.
Each article is kept in the database until it is older than the
@code{nice} value of each of its recipients and it is not marked by any
user.
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Currently there is a structure called a @code{Misc-Info-List} associated
with the @code{Text-Stat}. This list contains information about
recipients, senders, comments and footnotes. In the future the
information contained in the @code{Misc-Info-List} will be integrated
into the @code{Text-Stat}.
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Every article has at least one number, the global article number. Global
numbers are assigned in ascending order to new articles, and are never
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reused. If an article has recipients it will also have a local number
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for each recipient. Local numbers are used in some data structures to
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provide more compact storage and to provide an ordering of articles for
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a particular recipient. Local numbers are assigned in ascending order
and are never reused for a particular recipient, though different
recipients will have articles with the same local numbers.
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Occasionally it is necessary to map between local and global numbers.
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The server call @code{local-to-global} does this.
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@node Conferences, Persons and Sessions, Articles, Introduction
@section Conferences

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Conferences hold articles. They are represented in the protocol as a
data type called @code{Conference}. Each conference has a
@emph{creator}, the person who created the conference, and a
@emph{supervisor}, a conference whose members can modify the conference.
If the supervisor is a person, the members of that person's letterbox
are supervisors, which in most cases is only that person. We have also
introduced a type called @code{UConference} (pronounced micro-conf-stat)
which holds a subset of the information contained in the full
@code{Conference} type. Use the @code{UConference} type whenever
possible since it places a much smaller load on the LysKOM server.
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Each conference has a type, which is essentially a collection of boolean
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flags. Currently the flags @code{rd-prot}, @code{letterbox},
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@code{secret}, @code{original} and @code{allow-anonymous} are defined.
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@table @code
@item rd-prot
The conference is protected from reading by non-members. Persons become
members by having one of the existing members or supervisors add him or
her to the conference. This restriction is enforced by the server.
@item original
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Conferences of this type are intended for original articles only.
Comments are to be redirected to the super-conference instead. This
restriction is currently not enforced by the server; clients must
implement this functionality.
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@item letterbox
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Conferences of this type are connected to persons. Letters to a person
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are sent to the letterbox and the name of the letterbox is synchronized
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with the person name. It is currently not possible to explicitly set or
clear this flag on a conference.
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@item secret
Conferences of this type are secret. The server will not divulge any
information of the existence of the conference to persons who are not
members or supervisors of the conference. If a letterbox is made secret,
that person cannot log in using the person name, but must specify a
person number instead.
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@item allow-anonymous
Conferences of this type accept anonymous articles. Other conferences
will reject anonymous articles.
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@end table



@node Persons and Sessions, The Misc-Info List, Conferences, Introduction
@subsection Persons and Sessions

Persons are represented in the protocol by values of the type
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@code{Person}. Associated with persons are statistics, a set of personal
flags and a set of privileges (@pxref{Security}.) Persons are also
associated with a conference that has the same number as the person and
the @code{letterbox} bit set.
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Connections to the server are represented as values of the type
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@code{Static-Session-Info}, @code{Session-Info-Ident} or
@code{Session-Info}. Sessions have session number that are unique for
each session in the lifetime of the server execution. A single user can
have several sessions running at once. The session is not released until
the network connection is closed; a user can log in and out repeatedly
in a single session.
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@node The Misc-Info List, The Aux-Item List, Persons and Sessions, Introduction
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@section The Misc-Info List

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The @code{Misc-Info} list contains tagged data. The fields are sent in
groups pertaining to a particular type of information: information about
recipient; carbon copy recipient, comment to; footnote to; comment in
and footnote in. The information groups may be sent in any order and
there may be any number of groups. Within each group the elements are
always sent in the order listed below.
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@subsection Recipient
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@table @code
@item recpt
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Starts a recipient group. It contains the conference number of a
recipient of the article.
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@item loc-no
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Always present within a recipient group. It contains the local text
number of the article in the conference specified by the preceding
@code{recpt} field.
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@item rec-time
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If the recipient is a person, this element is added by the server when
the recipient marks the article as read. It contains the time when the
text was read.
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@item sent-by
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Present when the recipient was added by a person other than the author
(after the article was created.) It contains the person number of the
person who added the recipient.
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@item sent-at
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Present when the recipient was added after the article was created. It
contains the time when the recipient was added.
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@end table


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@subsection Carbon Copy (CC) Recipient
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The carbon-copy recipient group is identical to the recipient group
above. The difference is how new comments to an article with a recipient
or carbon-copy recipient are treated. A comment to an article is sent to
all recipients, but not to carbon-copy recipients of the original
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article. This difference is enforced by the clients.
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@table @code
@item cc-recpt
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Starts a carbon-copy recipient group. It contains the conference number
of a carbon-copy recipient of the article.
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@item loc-no
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Always present in a CC recipient group. It contains the local text
number of the article in the conference specified by the most recent
@code{cc-recpt} field.
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@item rec-time
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Present after the CC recipient has read the article. It contains the
time when the article was read.
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@item sent-by
Present when a CC recipient was added by a person other than the author
after the article had been created. It contains the person number of the
person who added the cc recipient.
@item sent-at
Present when a CC recipient was added after the article had been
created. It is the time when the CC recipient was added.
@end table


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@subsection Comment To
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@table @code
@item comm-to
Always present when the article is a comment to another article.
@item sent-by
Present when the article was added as a comment by a person other than
the author, after the article had been created. It contains the person
number of the person who added the article as a comment.
@item sent-at
Present when the article was added as a comment after the article had
been created. It contains the time when is was added as a comment.
@end table


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@subsection Footnote To
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@table @code
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@item footn-to
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Always present when the article is a footnote to another article.
@item sent-at
Present when the article was added as a footnote after the article had
been created. It contains the time when is was added as a footnote.
@end table


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@subsection Comment in
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@table @code
@item comm-in
Present when there are comments to this article. It contains the article
number which is a comment to this article.
@end table


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@subsection Footnote in
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@table @code
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@item footn-in
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Present when there are footnotes to this article. It contains the
article number which is a footnote to this article.
@end table


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@node The Aux-Item List, Security, The Misc-Info List, Introduction
@subsection The Aux-Item List

The aux-item list is used as a generic extension mechanism in the LysKOM
server and in protocol A. 

@menu
* About Aux-Items ::
* Predefined Aux-Item Types ::
* Client-Specific Aux-Item Types ::
* Experimental Aux-Item Types ::
* Defining New Aux-Item Types ::
@end menu

@node About Aux-Items, Predefined Aux-Item Types, , The Aux-Item List
@subsubsection About Aux-Items

Aux-items were introduced in protocol version 10 as a mechanism for
extending the conference, text and server information structures without
changing the protocol. Persons were excluded since nobody could figure
out a case where setting an aux-item on the letterbox wasn't as good as
setting it on the person (another reason was that I was fed up writing
aux-item code by the time they were working on texts and conferences.)

The exact structure of an aux item is specified elsewhere (@pxref{LysKOM
Data Types}). The important fields here are the aux-no, tag and data
fields.

The aux-no field is used to identify an item. The aux-no together with a
text or conference number uniquely identifies a particular aux item.
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Items are numbered from one and up within each item list. Once assigned,
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the aux-no for an item is never changed. New items are guaranteed to
be assigned numbers that have never been used before within a particular
list.

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The tag field identifies the type of aux item. It is used by the server
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and by clients to figure out how to interpret the data field, and by the
server to decide if the item needs special treatment.

The data field is a simple string. The meaning of the string is
determined by the tag field, but since it is a string, clients that have
no understanding of the contents can successfully parse the item anyway
(in contrast to items in the misc-info list.)



@node Predefined Aux-Item Types, Client-Specific Aux-Item Types, About Aux-Items, The Aux-Item List
@subsubsection Predefined Aux-Item Types

Predefined Aux-Item types are part of Protocol A, and clients are
encouraged to support all of them. As with other parts of the protocol,
changes to these item types will probably always be
backwards-compatible.

Predefined types can case serious magic to be invoked in the server.
There is no limit to the strangeness that may be associated with this
type of item. The server may also place limits on who may create
predefined items, might verify the data field, and can force any field
in the item to a specific value, no matter what the client specified.

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predefined. If a client attempts to create an item with a tag in this
range, but the server has no idea what that tag means, the server will
return an error (KOM_ILL_AUX.)



@table @samp
@item content-type [1] (text)
Specifies the content type of a text. Data is a valid MIME type of one
of the special LysKOM types (@pxref{LysKOM Content Types}.)

This item may only be set by the author of a text. The inherit, secret
and hide-owner bits are cleared. Only one content-type item can be
created per creator.


@item fast-reply [2] (text)
Data is a string that constitutes a brief comment to the text. This
comment should be displayed immediately after the text body. 

The inherit bit is automatically cleared.


@item cross-reference [3] (text, conference)
Data is a cross-reference to something else. The contents must match
"\(T\|C\|P\)\([0-9]+\) \(.*\)", where \1 specifies if the cross
reference leads to a text, conference or person, \2 specified the number
of the target (text-no, conf-no or pers-no) and \3 is simply descriptive
text.

The inherit bit is automatically cleared.


@item no-comments [4] (text)
When this item is set, the author requests that nobody comments the
text. This is advisory only; it is still possible to write comments, but
clients should advise the user that this is contrary to the author's
wishes. Data should be empty.

This item may only be set by the author. The secret, hide-creator and
inherit bits are automatically cleared.


@item personal-comment [5] (text)
When this item is set, the author requests only personal comments. This
is advisory only; it is still possible to create regular comments, but
clients should advise the user that the author prefers a personal
comment. Data should be empty.

This item may only be set by the author. The secret, hide-creator and
inherit bits are automatically cleared.


@item request-confirmation [6] (text)
The author requests that everyone who reads the text confirms having
done so by creating read-confirmation items on the text. Clients should
ask users if they wish to confirm having read the text when it is
displayed. Data should be empty.

The hide-creator, secret and inherit bits are automatically cleared.


@item read-confirm [7] (text)
This item can be taken as confirmation that the item creator has read
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the text to which the item is attached. Clients should never ever create
this item without an explicit confirmation from the user that the text
has indeed been read.
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The hide-creator, secret and inherit bits are automatically cleared.


@item redirect [8] (conference)

When set, messages sent directly to the conference should really be
sent elsewhere. Data is PROTOCOL:ADDRESS where PROTOCOL is either
"E-mail" or "LysKOM", and ADDRESS is either an e-mail address or a
LysKOM conference. Hopefully we'll be able to replace this with a
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This item can only be set by the conference supervisor or in the case of
a letterbox, the person attached to the letterbox. The hide-creator and
secret bits are cleared automatically. Only one redirect can be
specified.


@item x-face [9] (conference)

Data is the face of the person in compface format. Cool, innit?

This item can only be set by the conference supervisor or in the case of
a letterbox, the person attached to the letterbox. The hide-creator and
secret bits are cleared automatically. 


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@item alternate-name [10] (text, conference)
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Data is a string that the client may use as an alternate to the name of
a conference or the subject of a text. 

The inherit flag is automatically cleared.


@item pgp-signature [11] (text)

Data is a PGP signature of the text. The signature should be the
equivalent of what "pgp -sba" generates.

The secret, hide-creator and inherit bits are automatically cleared.
Signatures cannot be deleted once they have been created.


@item pgp-public-key [12] (letterbox)

Data is the public key of the person. It is desirable that the public
key contains a userid of the format "LysKOM <p\([0-9]\)@@\(.*\)>+", where
\1 is the number of the person in the LysKOM server specified in \2.

This item can only be set by the person himself. The hide-creator,
secret and inherit bits are automatically cleared.


@end table




@node Client-Specific Aux-Item Types, Experimental Aux-Item Types, Predefined Aux-Item Types, The Aux-Item List
@subsubsection Client-Specific Aux-Item Types

Client-specific items do not cause the server to perform any magic. All
the flags (except the delete flag) are left untouched, the data is not
validated in any way, and anyone can create any item. If you need more
server support than this, your item should be on the predefined list.

All tags in the range 10000-19999 are reserved for clients. Blocks of
100 numbers at a time can be assigned to specific clients. A client
should never create items with tags in a range assigned to another
client or in an unassigned range. Assigned ranges will never change.

Currently, the following ranges are assigned to clients:
@itemize @bullet
@item 10000-10099: The Elisp Client
@end itemize

If you want a range of numbers, send e-mail to the LysKOM development
group.


@node Experimental Aux-Item Types, Defining New Aux-Item Types, Client-Specific Aux-Item Types, The Aux-Item List
@subsubsection Experimental Aux-Item Types

Experimental numbers are free for all. Use 'em any way you want. All
numbers in the range 20000-29999 are for experimental use. 



@node Defining New Aux-Item Types, , Experimental Aux-Item Types, The Aux-Item List
@subsubsection Defining New Aux-Item Types

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If you want a new predefined item type, just document what it does, what
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the data format looks like and what the server is to do with the item
and send this to the LysKOM development group. We'll assign a number to
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your item and put the documentation in this document. 
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If you're not sure what you want the data to look like yet, make a note
in your documentation that the data format might change. Once you have a
data format you're happy with, update the documentation so others may
use your item.

If you need serious magic in the server (more than can be specified with
the lyskomd configuration file), you'll probably have to write the code
yourself, or hope that the development group thinks your idea is so cool
we do the job for you.

The idea is not to reject any type of item, unless there's already an
item type that does the job just as well. Adding item types should be a
much less painful process than adding new calls.





@node Security, Membership and Reading, The Aux-Item List, Introduction
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@subsection Security

Security in LysKOM is based on two components. Each person has a set of
privileges and each session has a security level. Rights in the system
require both the sufficient privileges and a sufficient security
level. The privileges currently available are wheel, admin, statistic,
create-conf, create-pers and change-name. Security levels range from 0
to 255.


@table @code
@item wheel
@emph{Normally not assigned}
@table @asis
@item Level 0
Person may always log in, even when LysKOM is crowded.
@item Level 6
Person may set Priv-Bits for all persons.
@item Level 7
Person may set password for all persons.
@item Level 8
Person acts as supervisor for everything.
@item Level 10
Person can read all articles.
@end table

@item admin
@emph{Normally not assigned}
@table @asis
@item Level 1
Shut down the server@*
Set motd_of_kom@*
Read last_login
@item Level 2
Read status of secret conferences and persons@*
Read the protected parts of person and conference statuses@*
Read the entire text status, even when there are secret recipients
@item Level 3
Change everybody's names
@item Level 4
Add/remove members@*
Add/remove recipients to articles
@item Level 5
Set super-conference@*
Remove articles
@item Level 6
Set administrator
@end table

@item statistic
@emph{Normally not assigned}
@table @asis
@item Level 2
Read the statistics portions of persons, even if protected
@end table

@item create_conf
@emph{Normally assigned}
@table @asis
@item Level 0
Create conferences
@end table

@item create_pers
@emph{Normally assigned}
@table @asis
@item Level 0
Create persons
@end table

@end table


@node Membership and Reading, Client-Server Dialog, Security, Introduction
@section Membership and Reading

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Persons' memberships in conferences are represented in the protocol as
arrays of @code{Membership}-typed values. This structure contains a
record of what the person has read in that conference.
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The first part of the record is the @code{last-text-read} field. It
contains the highest local text number such that the person has read
every text with an equal or lower local number. The second part of the
record is the @code{read-texts} array, which contains the local text
numbers higher than @code{last-text-read} that are also read.
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Finding out which articles a person has read in a particular conference
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requires a few calls. Normally, a client will retrieve a batch of
perhaps 50 articles at a time. The outline of the process is as follows:
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@enumerate
@item Fetch the membership to get the @code{last-text-read}
@item Translate 50 local numbers starting as @code{last-text-read} to global
numbers.
@item Remove the local numbers that are in @code{read-texts} from the result
@item Get and translate more texts as needed.
@end enumerate

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The process is complicated because of the translation between local and
global text numbers. In the future there will hopefully be a single call
that does this work in the server.
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@node Client-Server Dialog, ,Membership and Reading , Introduction
@section Client-Server Dialog

The client-server dialog consists of two phases, establishing the connection
and the LysKOM session itself.

@subsection Connecting to the Server

A connection to the server is initiated by connecting to the appropriate
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network port@footnote{The default port for a LysKOM server is 4894} and
sending a single letter which is used to select a protocol version
followed by connection information required by that protocol. In
protocol A the connection information is a Hollerith string saying who
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the user connecting is followed by a newline character.
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When the server has accepted the connection its reply is
protocol-dependent. Protocol A servers will reply with the string
@code{LysKOM} on a single line.

@example
        % telnet kom.lysator.liu.se
        Trying 130.236.254.151 ...
        Connected to varg.lysator.liu.se.
        Escape character is '^]'.
        A5Hbyers
        LysKOM
@end example

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After connecting, calls to the server can be made. Most calls require
the user to log in, but some calls can be made without a log-in. Calls
to the server are made by sending a reference number followed by the
call as specified.
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@example
        server-call ::=
                ( ref-no        :       INT32;
                  request       :       Protocol-Request;
                )
@end example

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At some future point the server will reply with the result of the
request or an error code preceded by an indicator and the reference
number.
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@example
        server-reply ::= ok-reply | error-reply;

        ok-reply ::=
                ( "="
                  ref-no        :       INT32;
                  reply-data;
                )

        error-reply ::=
                ( "%"
                  ref-no        :       INT32;
                  error-no      :       Error-No;
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                  error-status  :       INT32;
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                )

        error-no ::= INT32;
@end example

Our notation is not flexible enough to specify the two-way nature of the
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communication. @code{ref-no} in the reply is always the same as
@code{ref-no} in the corresponding request. @code{reply-data} depends on
which request was made and is specified together with each request.

Please note that there is no whitespace after the initial indicator in
the reply.
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Error reporting is covered in more detail in chapter @ref{Error Codes}.
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@node Data Types, , , Top
@chapter Data Types

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The data types in protocol A come in two flavors. The first (vanilla)
are the simple data types from which the LysKOM (chocolate) data types
are built. Simple data types include things like integers and strings
while complex data types include things such as conferences and people.
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@menu
* Simple Data Types::
* LysKOM Data Types::
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* Name Expansion::
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@end menu

@node Simple Data Types, LysKOM Data Types, Data Types, Data Types
@section Simple Data Types

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Data elements are sent from client to server separated by one or more
ASCII spaces (0x20), tab characters (0x09), line feeds (0x0A) or
carriage returns (0x0D.) In messages from server to client the data
elements are separated by exactly one space character and the entire
message terminated with a line feed.
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@subsection Integers

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@dfn{INT32}, @dfn{INT16}, @dfn{INT8} and @dfn{BOOL} are non-negative
integers which must fit in 32, 16, 8 and 1 bits, respectively. They are
transmitted to the server in ASCII-encoded decimal notation.
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@subsection Strings

@dfn{HOLLERITH} denotes character strings of arbitrary length. They are
transmitted as @code{<n>H<text>} where @code{<text>} is the string and
@code{<n>} is the number of characters in @code{<text>} in decimal
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notation. All byte values are allowed in the string itself, including
nulls.

Long live FORTRAN!
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@subsection Bit Strings

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@dfn{BITSTRING} is a string of bits, commonly used for a set of
boolean-valued flags. Bit strings are denoted as
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@example
        BITSTRING ( name-1; name-2; name-3; ... )
@end example

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in this specification. They are transmitted as a sequence of ASCII ones
and zeroes in the order the fields are listed.
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For instance, given the specification

@example
        shape-of-world : BITSTRING (
                is-flat;
                is-round;
                is-2d;
                is-3d;
        )
@end example

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most peoples idea of @code{shape-of-world} would be sent as @code{0101}
(round and three-dimensional.)
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@subsection Arrays

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@dfn{ARRAY} is a list of a fixed number of elements of a single type.
The specification for an array is @code{ARRAY <type>} where
@code{<type>} is the type of the array elements.
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Arrays are transmitted as an @code{<n> @{ <element> <element> ... @}}
where @code{<n>} is the number of elements and each @code{<element>} is
an element of the array. A special case is when the array is empty, in
which case the server transmits it as @code{0 *}. Note that the client
must always transmit empty arrays as @code{0 @{ @}}.
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In some calls the client can ask the server not to send the array
contents, only its length. In these cases the array is transmitted as
@code{<n> *} where @code{<n>} is the number of elements in the array.
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@subsection Selection

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@dfn{SELECTION} is tagged data. It consists of an INT32 selector
followed by a tail of an arbitrary type and is specified as
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@example
        SELECTION (
                <n>=<name>        <tail> : <type>;
                <n>=<name>        <tail> : <type>;
                ...
        )
@end example

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where each @code{<n>} is the selector value, @code{<name>} the selector
name and @code{<tail>} the name of the selector tail and @code{<type>}
its type.
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When transmitted, the selector is transmitted as an INT32 followed by
the tail belonging to that selector. For instance, given the
specification
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@example
        phrase : SELECTION (
               1=hello          name : HOLLERITH;
               2=howdy          ;
        )
@end example

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two legal messages of the type @code{phrase} are @samp{1 4HJohn} and
@samp{2}.
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@subsection RPC

@dfn{RPC} is a notation used to specify calls to the server. An RPC
specification has the following form:

@example
        RPC (
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                <call> <<n>> ( <request> ) -> ( <reply> ) ;
                <call> <<n>> ( <request> ) -> ( <reply> ) ;
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        )
@end example

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where each @code{<call>} is the name of a call, @code{<n>} is the call
number, @code{<request>} is a single data element sent as a request and
@code{<reply>} is a single data element sent in reply from the server.
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RPC calls are transmitted as @code{<n> <request>} where @code{<n>} and
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@code{<request>} have the same meaning as above. Note that in the
client-server dialog a reference number must also be supplied with each
request. This reference number is not part of the RPC itself, but is
required for communications @xref{Client-Server Dialog}.
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@subsection Structure

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Structures are collections of several data items. In the specification
they are written as
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@example
        ( <name> : <type> ;
          <name> : <type> ;
          ...
        )
@end example

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where each @code{<name>} is the name of a data field and the
corresponding @code{<type>} is its type.
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Structures are transmitted as a sequence of their fields.


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@node LysKOM Data Types, Name Expansion, Simple Data Types, Data Types
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@section LysKOM Data Types

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In this section the data types specific to LysKOM are defined. Most of
these will probably make very little sense until you know what calls
there are. This section does not include the server calls or
asynchronous messages, even though these are also data types.
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Since the types defined here are all based on the simple types, the
definitions are more concise in this section.

@subsection Common Types

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The types defined in this section are fairly simple and used in many of
the more complex data types.
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@subsubsection Time

@example
        Time ::=
              ( seconds         :       INT32;
                minutes         :       INT32;
                hours           :       INT32;
                day             :       INT32;
                month           :       INT32;
                year            :       INT32;
                day-of-week     :       INT32;
                day-of-year     :       INT32;
                is-dst          :       BOOL;
              )
@end example

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@code{Time} is used to specify times in several data structures. The
fields @code{seconds}, @code{minutes} and @code{hours} give wall clock
time. @code{day} is the day of month and @code{month} is the current
month, starting with zero for January. @code{year} is the number of
years since 1900. @code{day-of-week} is the current weekday, with zero
used for Sunday. @code{day-of-year} is how many days of the year have
passed starting with zero and @code{is-dst} is true when the time
indicated is daylight savings time.
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When the server receives a @code{Time} structure from a client it
ignores the @code{day-of-week} and @code{day-of-year} fields.
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All times are expressed in the time zone of the server.

@subsubsection Conference Numbers

@example
        Conf-No         ::=     INT16;
        Conf-No-List    ::=     ARRAY Conf-No
@end example

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These two types denote conference numbers. @code{Conf-No} is used when
only a single number is permitted and @code{Conf-No-List} when multiple
conference numbers can be specified.
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@subsubsection Text Numbers
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@example
        Text-No         ::=     INT32;
        Local-Text-No   ::=     INT32;
        Text-List       ::=
              ( first-local-no  :       Local-Text-No;
                texts           :       ARRAY Text-No;
              )
@end example

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These three types are used to indicate articles in the LysKOM database.
@code{Text-No} is a global text number and @code{Local-Text-No} a local
text number. @code{Text-List} is used when a mapping from local to
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global numbers are required.

@subsubsection Person and Session Numbers

@example
        Pers-No         ::=     Conf-No;
        Pers-List       ::=     ARRAY Pers-No;
        Session-No      ::=     INT32;
@end example

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@code{Pers-No} is used to indicate a person and @code{Pers-List} to
indicate several. @code{Session-No} is used in a few data structures
relating to information about active LysKOM sessions.

@subsection Auxiliary Information

@example
        Aux-no   ::=    INT32;

        Aux-Item ::=
              ( aux-no      :       Aux-no;
                tag         :       INT32;
                creator     :       Pers-No;
                created-at  :       Time;
                flags       :       Aux-Item-Flags;
                inherit-limit :     INT32;
                data        :       HOLLERITH;
              )

        Aux-Item-Flags ::= BITSTRING
              ( deleted;
                inherit;
                secret;
                hide-creator;
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                reserved2;
                reserved3;
                reserved4;
              )
@end example

The fields in an Aux-Item have the following meaning:

@table @code
@item aux-no
The number of the item within the list where it is found. This number
together with a conference or text number uniquely identifies a
particular aux-item. 
@item tag
The item tag. The tag determines what the data means.
@item creator
The person who created the item, or zero if the item was created
anonymously or if the owner is being withheld.
@item created-at
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The time when the item was created.
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@item flags
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The item flags (see below).
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@item inherit-limit
Determines how many times (how deep) an item may be inherited. If zero,
the item is inherited an unlimited number of times. If nonzero it is
@b{one more} than the number of additional times the item may be
inherited. Thus, 1 means that inheritance will be blocked and 2 means
that the item will be inherited only to the next level.
@item data
The item data.
@end table

The flags that can be set on an aux-item have the following meaning:
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@table @code
@item deleted
The item has been deleted, and should not be used for anything.
@item inherit
The item will be inherited (if the inherit-limit field allows it.)
@item secret
The item will not be revealed to anyone but the item's creator and
supervisors of the creator.
@item hide-creator
The item creator will be withheld from everyone but the item's creator
and supervisors of the creator.
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@item dont-garb
The object the item is set on will not be garbage-collected.
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@end table
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@subsection Conference Types

@example
        Conf-Type ::= BITSTRING
              ( rd_prot;
                original;
                secret;
                letterbox;
              )

        Extended-Conf-Type ::=  BITSTRING
              ( rd_prot;
                original;
                secret;
                letterbox;
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                allow-anonymous;
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                reserved1;
                reserved2;
                reserved3;
              )

        Any-Conf-Type   ::=     Conf-Type | Extended-Conf-Type;
@end example

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These types are used to specify the type of a conference.
@code{Conf-Type} is used in data types and calls that were created
before version 8.0 of the protocol and has been augmented in
@code{Extended-Conf-Type}. The type @code{Any-Conf-Type} is used when
either is admissible.
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The bits have the following meaning (@pxref{Conferences}, for more
info.)
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@table @code
@item rd_prot
If unset anyone can add themselves as members to the conference.

@item original
If set, comments are not allowed in the conference.

@item secret
If set the conference is secret. It's existence will only be revealed to
members and supervisors.

@item letterbox
Set if the conference is a person's mailbox.

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@item allow-anonymous
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Set if anonymous articles are allowed in the conference.

@item reserved1
@itemx reserved2
@itemx reserved3
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Reserved for future use. The values of these bits should be never be
modified or used by clients who do not know their meaning. When a new
conference is created these should always be set to zero.
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@end table


@subsection Conference Search Results

@example
        Conf-Z-Info ::= 
              ( name    :       HOLLERITH;
                type    :       Conf-Type;
                conf_no :       Conf_no;
              )

        Conf-Z-Info-List ::= ARRAY Conf-Z-Info;
@end example

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These types are used for the result of some calls that search for
conferences based on their names.
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@subsection Conference Status Types

@example
        Garb-Nice ::= INT32;

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        Conference-old ::=   
                ( name                  :       HOLLERITH;
                  type                  :       Conf-Type;
                  creation-time         :       Time;
                  last-written          :       Time;
                  creator               :       Pers-No;
                  presentation          :       Text-No;
                  supervisor            :       Conf-No;
                  permitted-submitters  :       Conf-No;
                  super-conf            :       Conf-No;
                  msg-of-day            :       Text-No;
                  nice                  :       Garb-Nice;
                  no-of-members         :       INT16;
                  first-local-no        :       Local-Text-No;
                  no-of-texts           :       INTEGER;
                )

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        Conference ::=   
                ( name                  :       HOLLERITH;
                  type                  :       Conf-Type;
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                  type                  :       Extended-Conf-Type;
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                  creation-time         :       Time;
                  last-written          :       Time;
                  creator               :       Pers-No;
                  presentation          :       Text-No;
                  supervisor            :       Conf-No;
                  permitted-submitters  :       Conf-No;
                  super-conf            :       Conf-No;
                  msg-of-day            :       Text-No;
                  nice                  :       Garb-Nice;
                  no-of-members         :       INT16;
                  first-local-no        :       Local-Text-No;
                  no-of-texts           :       INTEGER;
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                  expire                :       Garb-Nice;
                  aux-items             :       ARRAY Aux-Item;
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                )

        UConference ::=
                ( name                  :       HOLLERITH;
                  type                  :       Extended-Conf-Type;
                  highest-local-no      :       Local-Text-No;
                  nice                  :       Garb-Nice;
                )
@end example

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These three types are used to specify information about a conference.
@code{Garb-Nice} is a quantity used to specify how long articled are
kept in a conference before being removed. @code{Conference} is the full
information about a conference and @code{UConference} is brief
information about a conference.
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The fields of @code{Conference} are

@table @code
@item name
The name of this conference.
@item type
The type of the conference.
@item creation-time
The date and time when the conference was created.
@item last-written
The date when something was last written in the conference.
@item creator
The person who created the conference.
@item presentation
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The article containing the conference presentation or zero if the
conference has no presentation.
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@item supervisor
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The conference@footnote{The @code{supervisor} may be a person, in which
case the members of that person's letterbox become supervisors.} who
supervises this conference.
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@item permitted-submitters
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The conference whose members@footnote{@code{permitted-submitters} can be
a person, in which case all persons who are members of the associated
letterbox are allowed to submit articles to the conference.} may submit
articles to the conference, or zero if anyone may do so.
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@item super-conf
The conference that receives comments if this conference does not accept
them. Zero means the author of the comment in question.
@item msg-of-day
The conference notice, if any. 
@item nice
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The number of days an article should be kept before being removed from
the conference.
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@item no-of-members
The number of members of this conference.
@item first-local-no
The local number of the oldest existing article in the conference.
@item no-of-texts
The number of articles in the conference.
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@item expire
This field will be used to control when a conference expires. 
It is not used at the moment, and should be set to zero for future
compatibility.
@item aux-items
The conference's aux item list. 
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@end table

The fields of @code{UConference} are

@table @code
@item name
The name of this conference.
@item type
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The conference type. Note that this is an extended conference type,
unlike the type field of @code{Conference}.
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@item highest-local-no
The local number of the newest article in the conference.
@item nice
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The number of days an article should be kept before being removed from
the conference.
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@end table


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@subsection Mapping Local to Global Text Numbers

@example
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        Text-Mapping ::=
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              ( later-texts-exists    :    BOOL;
                block                 :    Local-To-Global-Block;
              )

        Local-To-Global-Block ::= SELECTION
              ( 0=sparse sparse-block :   ARRAY Text-Number-Pair;
                1=dense  dense-block  :   Text-List;
              )

        Text-Number-Pair ::=
              ( local-number          :   Local-Text-No;
                global-number         :   Text-No;
              )
@end example

FIXME: more text here.


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@subsection Server Information

@example
        Info ::=    
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              ( version             :   INT32;
                conf-pres-conf      :   Conf-No;
                pers-pres-conf      :   Conf-No;
                motd-conf           :   Conf-No;
                kom-news-conf       :   Conf-No;
                motd-of-lyskom      :   Text-No;
                aux-item-list       :   Aux-item-list;
              )

        Info-old ::=    
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              ( version             :   INT32;
                conf-pres-conf      :   Conf-No;
                pers-pres-conf      :   Conf-No;
                motd-conf           :   Conf-No;
                kom-news-conf       :   Conf-No;
                motd-of-lyskom      :   Text-No;
              )

        Version-Info ::=
              ( protocol-version    :   INT32;
                server-software     :   HOLLERITH
                software-version    :   HOLLERITH
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              )
@end example

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These data types contain information about the LysKOM server. The fields
of @code{Info} are
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@table @code
@item version
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The server version encoded as a number @code{aabbcc} where @code{aa} is
the major version number, @code{bb} the minor number and @code{cc} the
secondary minor version. For instance, @code{10607} is version 1.6.7 of
the server. If greater than 10699 the @code{get-version-info} should be
used instead.
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@item conf-pres-conf
The conference that contains conference presentations.
@item pers-pres-conf
The conference that contains person presentations.
@item motd-conf
The conference that contains conference and person notices.
@item kom-news-conf
The conference that contains news about LysKOM.
@item motd-of-lyskom
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The number of an article to display when LysKOM is entered or zero if
there is none.
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@end table

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The fields of @code{Version-Info} are:

@table @code
@item protocol-version
The version of protocol A the server is using. This may be used to
ascertain which calls are available.
@item server-software
Human-readable name of the server software.
@item software-version
Human-readable name of the server software version.
@end table

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@subsection Person Status Types

@example
        Person ::=
              ( username                :       HOLLERITH;
                privileges              :       Priv-Bits;
                flags                   :       Personal-Flags;
                last-login              :       Time;
                user-area               :       Text-No;
                total-time-present      :       INT32;
                sessions                :       INT32;
                created-lines           :       INT32;
                created-bytes           :       INT32;
                read-texts              :       INT32;
                no-of-text-fetches      :       INT32;
                created-persons         :       INT16;
                created-confs           :       INT16;
                first-created-local-no  :       INT32;
                no-of-created-texts     :       INT32;
                no-of-marks             :       INT16;
                no-of-confs             :       INT16;
              )

        Personal-Flags ::= BITSTRING 
              ( unread-is-secret;
                flg2;
                flg3;
                flg4;
                flg5;
                flg6;
                flg7;
                flg8;
              )


        Priv-Bits ::= BITSTRING 
              ( wheel;
                admin;
                statistic;
                create_pers;
                create_conf;
                change_name;
                flg7;
                flg8;
                flg9;
                flg10;
                flg11;
                flg12;
                flg13;
                flg14;
                flg15;
                flg16;
              )
@end example

These types are used to specify information about persons. @code{Person}
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contains the information about a person, @code{Personal-Flags} contains
flags set by the user and @code{Priv-Bits} contains the person's
privileges.
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The fields of @code{Person} are

@table @code
@item username
The name of the user.
@item privileges
The privileges of the person.
@item flags
Flags set by the user.
@item last-login
The time when the person last logged on.
@item user-area
The text number of the person's user area or zero if the person has no
user area.
@item total-time-present
The number of seconds the person has been using LysKOM. 
@item sessions
The number of sessions the person has initiated.
@item created-lines
The number of lines of articles the person has written.
@item created-bytes
The number of characters the person has written.
@item read-texts
The number of articles the person has read.
@item no-of-text-fetches
The number of texts the person has retrieved from the server.
@item created-persons
The number of other persons this person has created.
@item created-confs
This holds the number of conferences created by the person.
@item first-created-local-no
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The local number of the earliest existing article written by the person.
The local number applies to a local-to-global mapping containing all
articles written by the person.
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@item no-of-created-texts
This holds the number of articles written by the person.
@item no-of-marks
The number of marked texts this person has.
@item no-of-confs
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The number of conferences the person is a member of.
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@end table


@subsection Membership Information

@example
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        Membership-Type ::=     BITSTRING
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              ( invitation;
                passive;
                secret;
                reserved1;
                reserved2;
                reserved3;
                reserved4;
                reserved5;
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              )
@end example

The @code{Membership-Type} type contains flags that modify a membership.
It is passed as part of both @code{Member} and @code{Membership}. The
flags are:

@table @code
@item invitation
The member has been invited, but has not yet accepted membership.
Clients should set this flag when adding other users as members. The
server may force this flag to be set when adding another person as a
member of a conference.
@item passive
The member is not actively participating in the conference. Passive
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active members by clients.
@item secret
The member does not wish to disclose the membership. Secret memberships
and members are cleared before being returned to a person who is not a
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@end table

The remaining flags in the @code{Membership-Type} structure are reserved
and should be set to false on all new memberships and retained on all
existing memberships.

@example
        Member-Old      ::=     Pers-No;
        Member-List-Old ::=     ARRAY Member-Old;

        Member          ::=
              ( member          :       Pers-No;
                added-by        :       Pers-No;
                added-at        :       Time;
                type            :       Membership-Type;
              )
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        Member-List     ::=     ARRAY Member;
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@end example

The @code{Member} structure encodes information about a member in a
conference. It is returned by the @ref{get-members} call. The fields of
a @code{Member} structure are

@table @code
@item member
The person who is a member of the conference.
@item added-by
The person who created the membership. This field is zero only if the
membership was created before protocol version 10 was introduced.
@item added-at
The time when the membership was created. This field is meaningless if
added-by is zero.
@item type
Flags modifying the membership.
@end table

The contents of a @code{Member} structure can be cleared (all fields set
to zero) if the person requesting the record has insufficient privileges
to see the contents of the structure.


@example
        Membership-Old ::=
              ( last-time-read  :       Time;
                conference      :       Conf-No;
                priority        :       INT8;
                last-text-read  :       Local-Text-No;
                read-texts      :       ARRAY Local-Text-No;
              )
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        Membership ::=
              ( last-time-read  :       Time;
                conference      :       Conf-No;
                priority        :       INT8;
                last-text-read  :       Local-Text-No;
                read-texts      :       ARRAY Local-Text-No;
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                added-by        :       Pers-No;
                added-at        :       Time;
                type            :       Membership-Type;                
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              )

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        Membership-List-Old ::= ARRAY Membership-Old;
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        Membership-List ::=     ARRAY Membership;
@end example

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The @code{Membership} structure encodes information about a person's
membership in a conference. It is returned by the @ref{query-read-texts}
and @ref{get-membership} calls.
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@table @code
@item last-time-read
The time when the person last read anything from the conference.
@item conference
The conference this membership data pertains to.
@item priority
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The priority the person has assigned to the conference. The higher the
number, the higher the priority. In the future, priority zero will be
used to indicate a passive membership.
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@item last-text-read
The local number of last text read in the conference.
@item read-texts
Additional texts beyond @code{last-text-read} that have also been read.
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@item added-by
The person who created the membership. This field is zero if the
membership was created before protocol version 10 was introduced.
@item added-at
The time when the membership was created. This field is meaningless if
added-by is zero.
@item type
Flags modifying the membership.
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@end table

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A membership record may be cleared by the server (all fields set to
zero) if the person requesting the membership has insufficient
privileges to see the contents membership, but has sufficient privileges
to know about the person.

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@subsection Article Marks

@example
        Mark ::= 
                ( text-no       :       Text-No;
                  type          :       INT8
                )

        Mark-List ::= ARRAY Mark;
@end example

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These data types hold information about a person's marks on articles.
@code{Mark} holds information on a single mark and @code{Mark-List} on
several.
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The fields of @code{Mark} are

@table @code
@item text-no
The text number marked.
@item type
The mark value.
@end table

Before version eight of protocol A, the meaning of the mark value was