Commit 4c79a751 authored by Niels Möller's avatar Niels Möller
Browse files

*** empty log message ***

Rev: doc/crypto-library.txt:1.1
Rev: src/symmetric/.cvsignore:1.8
parent 6d9b9154
Two interfaces for a general purpose cryptographic library.
This document describes a general-purpose cryptographic library. The
goal is not to provide an advanced high-level interface that makes it
easy to write applications. The goal is to provide a *simple*
interface on top of which more advanced and more application-specific
interfaces can be built. In particular, it should be straight-forward
to add wrappers for anybody's favourite object oriented environment.
That way, the low-level code can be reused in different contexts.
There are actually two interfaces: The low level interface, and the
LSH interface. The latter is an example of an object-oriented
interface, and is not really a part of the library.
In order to fit within many different contexts, it is important that
the low-level library doesn't insist on doing things that an
application or a higher-level toolkit can do better. It should avoid
things like algorithm selection, as well as memory allocation and i/o.
The library should provide a consistent interface to the supported
algorithms, but at the same time not try to hide differences that may
be relevant where the algorithms are used.
The library should have a catchy name. Below, I'm referring to the
library as "gcrypt".
For a symmetric cipher called FOO, there is a context struct, a few
functions and constants, all defined in a headerfile called
struct foo_ctx
... internal state ...
The header file contains a real definition of the context struct, not
jsut a forward declaration, so that the user of the library is free to
allocate instances statically or on the stack, or include the struct
in other structs. No special action is required before deallocating
an instance, although some appliction may want to clear the memory as
soon as it is no longer needed.
For block ciphers, the blocksize is defined. All sizes are in octets
#define FOO_BLOCK_SIZE 16
Constants defining the keysize. For ciphers with variable size keys,
minimum and maximum sizes are defined (the cipher doesn't
necessarily support all key sizes in between). A reasonable
"recommended" keysize is also provided for all ciphers.
#define FOO_KEY_SIZE 8
#define FOO_MIN_KEY_SIZE 16
#define FOO_MAX_KEY_SIZE 32
Key setup operations depend on the cipher; the profived functions are
those that are natural for the cipher in questions. For ciphers with
similar key-setup for encryption and decryption, there is a single
set_key function
/* For fixed key size ciphers */
void foo_set_key(struct foo_ctx *ctx, uint8_t *key);
/* For variable key size ciphers */
void foo_set_key(struct foo_ctx *ctx, unsigned length, uint8_t *key);
Ciphers that have weak keys can return a value (of type int) from the
key-setup functions. In that case, the functions return 1 for
successful key setup, and 0 if the key was weak. (In general, ciphers
with weak keys should be avoided).
For DES, which have the strange parity check on keys, the key-setup
function should silently ignore the parity bits. If needed, there can
be separate functions for setting and checking the DES parity.
Algorithms that have fundamentally different key setup for encryption
and decryption use two distinct functions,
void foo_set_encrypt(struct foo_ctx *ctx, uint8_t *key);
void foo_set_decrypt(struct foo_ctx *ctx, uint8_t *key);
(again with variants for ciphers with variable size keys).
Algorithms for which inversion of the key is natural (IDEA is one
example) provide a function to do that,
void foo_invert(struct foo_ctx *ctx);
When it comes to encrypting data, there are again two types of
ciphers. Some ciphers have a single function for both encrypting and
decrypting (possibly with different key setup):
void foo_crypt(struct foo_ctx *ctx, unsigned length,
uint8_t *dest, const uint8_t *src);
Others provide two different functions:
void foo_encrypt(struct foo_ctx *ctx, unsigned length,
uint8_t *dest, const uint8_t *src);
void foo_decrypt(struct foo_ctx *ctx, unsigned length,
uint8_t *dest, const uint8_t *src);
In all cases, length is the size of the source and destination areas.
Encryption in-place (i.e. src == dst) is allowed, but no other
overlaps. For block ciphers, the length must be a multiple of the
blocksize; if there is more than one block, they are processed
independently, in ECB mode.
Utility Functions
TODO: Some general functions for applying a cipher in CBS mode would be
Each hash funcion BAR has a header file "gcrypt/bar.h" which defines a
context struct, constants and functions:
/* Size of hash digest */
#define BAR_DIGEST_SIZE 20
/* Size of internal state, for those hash functions for
* which that makes sense (e.g. md5 and sha1) */
#define BAR_DATA_SIZE 64
struct bar_ctx
.. internal state...
Any internal buffers are included in the context struct, so that the
state can be cloned by simply copyinging the struct. The functions
operationg on the context are
/* Initialize or reset the state */
void bar_init(struct bar_ctx *ctx);
/* Hash some data */
void bar_update(struct bar_ctx *ctx, unsigned length,
const uint8_t *data);
/* Do any needed "end-of-data" processing */
void bar_final(struct bar_ctx *ctx);
/* Extracts a digest, but doesn't modify the state. */
void bar_digest(struct bar_ctx *ctx,
unsigned length,
uint8_t *digest);
For the last function, LENGTH must be equal or less than
BAR_DIGEST_SIZE; if it is less, the digest is truncated.
This section describes an object oriented interface that can be built
on top of the low-level interface described above. It is implemented
in LSH, and a previous design was used for the cryptographic toolkit
for Pike (an object oriented language with C-like syntax). The
interfce also includes classes for creating and verifying digital
I'll use a simplified C++-like notation, with only methods (which
should be considered public and virtual in C++ speak). When
implementing this design in some real language, some of the methods
may be replaced with publicly accessible variables or otherwise
tweaked to fit the context.
Symmetric encryption
class crypto_instance
/* For stream-ciphers, this could return 0,
* or some other value that is reasonable
* for the application. For example,
* in secsh, arcfour is used as if
* it had a block size of 8 */
unsigned block_size();
/* The same rules for overlapping as
* for the corresponding low-level functions. */
void crypt(unsigned length,
uint8_t *dst, const uint8_t *src);
The length passed to the crypt() merho must be a multiple of the
block_size (unless the block size is zero). If there are several
blocks, the processing is not necessarily in ECB mode.
class crypto_algorithm
unsigned block_size();
unsigned key_size();
unsigned iv_size();
crypto_instance *make_crypt(mode_t mode,
const uint8_t *key,
const uint8_t *iv);
The a crypto_algorithm works as a factory for a particular type of
crypto_instance. The key and iv arguments should point to strings of
the appropriate size (and may be NULL if the size is 0).
This interface makes it straight-forward to build general classes for
implementing cascading of ciphers and other feedback modes. A few
examples. First, a cascade,
class crypto_cascade : crypto_algorithm
array(crypto_algorithm) algorithms;
/* Constructor */
crypto_cascade(array(crypto_algorithm) a)
{ algorithms = a; }
class cascade_instance : crypto_instance
array(crypto_instance) cryptos;
/* Constructor */
cascade_instance(array(crypto_instance) a)
{ cryptos = a; }
unsigned block_size()
/* Return the least common multiple
* of the block-sizes of cryptos */
unsigned crypt(unsigned length,
uint8_t *dst, const uint8_t *src)
cryptos[0]->crypt(length, src, dst);
for (unsigned i = 1; i < cryptos->size(); i++)
cryptos[i]->crypt(length, dst, dst);
unsigned key_size()
/* Return the sum of the key-sizes of algorithms. */
unsigned block_size()
/* Return the least common multiple
* of the block-sizes of algorithms. */
unsigned iv_size()
/* Return the sum of the iv-sizes of algorithms. */
crypto_instance *make_crypt(mode_t mode,
const uint8_t *key,
const uint8_t *iv)
array(crypto_instance) instances = allocate(algorithms->size());
for (unsigned i = 0; i<algorithms->size(); i++)
instances[i] = algorithms[i]
->make_crypt(mode, key, iv);
key += algorithms[i]->key_size();
iv += algorithms[i]->iv_size();
return cascade_instance(instances);
To invert the encrypt/decrypt meaning
class crypto_invert : crypto_algorithm
crypto_algorithm *real;
/* Constructor */
crypto_invert(crypto_algorithm *a)
{ real = a; }
unsigned key_size() { return real->key_size(); }
unsigned block_size() { return real->block_size(); }
unsigned iv_size() { return real->iv_size(); }
crypto_instance *make_crypt(mode_t mode,
const uint8_t *key,
const uint8_t *iv)
return real->make_crypt(mode == CRYPTO_ENCRYPT
key, iv);
We also need a CBC wrapper
class crypto_cbc : crypto_algorithm
crypto_algorithm *inner;
/* Constructor */
crypto_invert(crypto_algorithm *a)
{ inner = a; }
unsigned key_size() { return inner->key_size(); }
unsigned block_size() { return inner->block_size(); }
unsigned iv_size()
return inner->block_size() + inner->iv_size();
class cbc_instance_base : crypto_instance
crypto_instance *inner;
uint8_t *last;
/* Constructor */
crypto_instance_base(crypto_instance *a,
uint8_t *iv)
inner = a;
last = xalloc(inner->block_size());
memcpy(last, iv, inner->block_size());
class cbc_encrypt : cbc_instance_base
unsigned crypt(unsigned length,
uint8_t *dst, const uint8_t *src)
unsigned block_size = inner->block_size();
for (unsigned i = 0; i<length; i += block_size)
memxor(last, src + i, block_size);
dst + i, last);
memcpy(last, dst + i, block_size);
class cbc_decrypt : cbc_instance_base
unsigned crypt(unsigned length,
uint8_t *dst, const uint8_t *src)
unsigned block_size = inner->block_size();
if (!length)
if (src == dst)
/* Keep a copy of the ciphertext */
uint8_t *tmp = alloca(length);
memcpy(tmp, src, length);
src = tmp;
/* First decrypt in ECB mode. */
inner->crypt(length, dst, src);
/* XOR the ciphertext, shifted one block */
memxor(dst, last, block_size);
memxor(dst + block_size, src, length - block_size);
memcpy(last, src + length - block_size);
crypto_instance *make_crypt(mode_t mode,
const uint8_t *key,
const uint8_t *iv)
crypto_instance *i
= inner->make_crypt(mode, key, iv + inner->block_size());
return (mode == CRYPTO_ENCRYPT)
? cbc_encrypt(i, iv)
: cbc_decrypt(i, iv);
Finally, if DES is a crypto_algorithm implementing plain single DES in
ECB mode, we can construct triple DES (EDE) in (outer) CBC mode as
crypto_cbc(crypto_cascade([des, crypto_invert(des), des]))
Hash and MAC functions
class hash_instance
unsigned hash_size();
/* Corresponds to bar_update() */
void update(unsigned length, const uint8_t *data);
/* Corresponds to a sequence of bar_final(), bar_digest() and
* bar_init() */
void digest(unsigned length, uint8_t *digest);
/* Creates a new instance, copying the state. */
hash_instance *copy();
class hash_algorithm
/* Corresponds to BAR_DATA_SIZE */
unsigned block_size();
/* Corresponds to BAR_DIGEST_SIZE */
unsigned hash_size();
hash_instance *make_hash();
Mac algorithms
/* A mac_instance has precisely the same interface as
* a hash instance. */
class mac_instance : hash_instance
/* A mac_instance has precisely the same interface as
* a hash instance, except for the return type of
* the copy() method. */
mac_instance *copy();
class mac_algorithm
unsigned hash_size();
/* Recommended key size. */
unsigned key_size();
mac_instance *make_mac(unsigned length,
const uint8_t *key);
As an example, consider HMAC, defined by RFC 2104.
class hmac_algorithm : mac_algorithm
enum { IPAD = 0x36, OPAD = 0x5c };
hash_algorithm *hash;
unsigned hash_size() { return hash->hash_size(); }
/* Recommended by RFC 2104 */
unsigned key_size() { return hash->hash_size(); }
class hmac_instance : mac_instance
/* Fixed. */
hash_instance *inner;
hash_instance *outer;
/* Modified by update() */
hash_instance *state;
/* Constructor */
hmac_instance(hash_instance *i, hash_instance *o,
hash_instance *s)
inner = i; outer = o; state = s;
void update(unsigned length, const uint8_t *data)
{ state->update(length, data); }
void digest(unsigned length, uint8_t *digest)
unsigned size = state->hash_size();
uint8_t *tmp = alloca(size);
state->digest(length, data);
hash_instance *h = outer->copy();
h->update(tmp, size);
h->digest(length, digest);
state = inner->copy();
/* Creates a new instance, copying the state. */
hash_instance *copy()
return hmac_instance(inner, outer, state->copy());
mac_instance *make_mac(unsigned length,
const uint8_t *key)
unsigned size = hash->hash_size();
uint8_t *pad = alloca(size);
if (length >= size)
/* Reduce to the algorithm's hash size. */
uint8_t *tmp = alloca(size);
hash_instance *h = hash->make_hash();
h->update(length, key);
h->digest(tmp, size);
key = tmp;
length = size;
hash_instance *inner = hash->make_hash();
memset(pad, IPAD, size);
memxor(pad, key, length);
inner->update(size, pad);
hash_instance *outer = hash->make_hash();
memset(pad, OPAD, size);
memxor(pad, key, length);
outer->update(size, pad);
return hmac_instance(inner, outer, inner->copy());
Signature Algorithms
Notable features of these objects is that they can support several
flavours of signatures (spki, ssh-dss, bug-compatible variants of
The current factory class (signature_algorithm) only handles
spki-style keys, but one could use other types of factories. There is
no essnetial requirement that a signer instance knows the clear-text
private key; the signer may communicate with a hardware token, an
ssh-agent-like program, or a user that is willing to provide the
passphrase for an encrypted private key on request. If features like
that are implemented, the sign() methods will sometimes return NULL.
class verifier
/* Returns 1 if signature is ok, otherwise 0 */
int verify(int style,
unsigned length, uint8_t *data,
unsigned signature_length, uint8_t *signature);
int verify_spki(unsigned length, uint8_t *data,
sexp *e);
string *public_key();
sexp *public_spki_key();
class signer
string *sign(int style, unsigned length, uint8_t *data);
sexp *sign_spki(unsigned length, uint8_t *data);
verifier *get_verifier();
class signature_algorithm
signer *make_signer(sexp_iterator *i);
verifier *make_verifier(sexp_iterator *i);
......@@ -20,5 +20,6 @@ desdata
......@@ -20,5 +20,6 @@
Markdown is supported
0% or .
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment