Commit ece9eb93 authored by Niels Möller's avatar Niels Möller
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Rev: AUTHORS:1.1
Rev: COPYING:1.1
Rev: doc/HACKING:1.1
parent 20ec391f
lsh is written by Niels Möller, and distributed under the terms and
conditions of the GNU General Public License (see the file COPYING for
details). But many other people have written free code which is used
in lsh.
CAST implementation by Steve Reid, and released into the public
domain.
DES implementation by Dana L. How. Released under the LGPL.
IDEA implementation originally by Xeejia Lai, optimized by Colin
Plumb. Released into the public domain.
GMP, the GNU multiple precision arithmetic library, was written by
Torbjörn Granlund and many contributors. It is not actually included
in lsh, but it is needed for all public key computations. GMP is
released under the LPGL.
MD5 implementation by Colin Plumb, somewhat hacked by Andrew Kuchling.
Released into the public domain.
SHA implementation by Peter Gutmann, somewhat hacked by Andrew
Kuchling. Released into the public domain.
TCPUTILS networking code by Thomas Bellman. Released into the public
domain.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
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How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
Public License instead of this License.
A Hacker's Guide to LSH
This document contains some random notes, which I hope will make it
easier for you to understand and hack lsh. It is divided into three
main sections: Abstraction, memory allocation, and a source roadmap.
ABSTRACTION
All sent and recieved data are represented as a struct lsh_string.
This is a simple string type, with a length field and a sequence of
unsigned octets. The NUL character does *not* have any special status.
Most of the functions in lsh are organized in terms of objects. An
object type has a public interface: a struct containing attributes
that all instances of all implementations of the type must have, and
one or more method pointers. A method implementation is a C functions
which takes an instance of a corresponding instance as its first
argument (or in some cases, a pointer to a pointer to an instance).
For many types, there is only one public attribute, which is a method
pointer. In this case, the object is called a "closure".
Specific types of objects and closures often include more data; they
are structures where the first element is an interface structure.
Extra data can be considered private, in OO-speak.
Explicit casts are avoided as much as possible; instances that are
passed around are typed as pointers to the corresponding interface
struct, not as void *. Macros are used to make application of methods
and closures more convenient.
An example might make this clearer. The definition of a write handler,
taken from abstract_io.h:
/* May store a new handler into *w. */
struct abstract_write
{
int (*write)(struct abstract_write **w,
struct lsh_string *packet);
};
#define A_WRITE(f, packet) ((f)->write(&(f), (packet)))
/* A processor that passes its result on to another processor */
struct abstract_write_pipe
{
struct abstract_write super;
struct abstract_write *next;
};
This is the interface structure common to all write handlers, and a
generic subtype used for piping write handlers which are piped
together. One specific kind of write handler is the unpad handler,
which removes padding from recieved packets, and sends them on. This
code is found in unpad.c, and it does not have any private data
beyond the abstract_write_pipe structure above. The write method
implementation of this type looks as follows:
static int do_unpad(struct abstract_write **w,
struct lsh_string *packet)
{
struct abstract_write_pipe *closure = (struct abstract_write_pipe *) *w;
UINT8 padding_length;
UINT32 payload_length;
struct lsh_string *new;
if (packet->length < 1)
return 0;
padding_length = packet->data[0];
if ( (padding_length < 4)
|| (padding_length >= packet->length) )
return 0;
payload_length = packet->length - 1 - padding_length;
new = ssh_format("%ls", payload_length, packet->data + 1);
/* Keep sequence number */
new->sequence_number = packet->sequence_number;
lsh_string_free(packet);
return A_WRITE(closure->super.next, new);
}
Note the last line; the function passes a newly created packet on to
the next handler in the pipe.
MEMORY ALLOCATION
As always when writing C programs, memory allocation is the most
complicated and boring part of it. The objects in lsh can be
classified by allocation strategy into three classes:
× Strings. These use a producer-consumer abstractions. Strings are
allocated in various places, usually by reading a packet from some
socket, or by calling ssh_format(). They are passed on to some
consumer function, which has to deallocate the string when it is
finished procesing it usually by throwing it a way, transforming it
into a new string, or writing it to some socket. If you want to *both*
pass a string to a consumer, and keep it for later reference, you have
to copy it.
Sometimes, a consumer modifies a string destructively and sends it on,
rather than freeing it and allocating a new one. This is allowed; the
function that produced the string can not assume that it is alive or
intact after that it has been passed to a consumer.
× Local objects, used in only one module, and with references from
only one place. Examples are the list nodes that io.c uses to link
file objects together. These are freed explicitly when they are no
longer needed.
× Other objects and closures, which references eachother in some
complex fashion. Except places where it is *obvious* that an object
can be freed, these objects are currently not freed at all. This is a
serious bug, but it may not be as disastrous as one may think. In real
use, almost all allocated memory are strinsg, which *are* freed when
they are no longer used. The problem are things like pipes of write
handlers, keyexchange state objects, etc, which are rather few.
Of course, this should be fixed. I don't think it is practical to
manually free all objects at the right time. Instead, one could use
some of the following methods.
1. Reference counting (circular references still have to be broken
manually, but that's a lot easier than explicitly freeing objects
at the right time).
2. Some pool-based mechanism: Associate each allocated objects with
some connection, and free them all when the connection dies. One
could also have a limit on the amount of storage that can be
allocated for one connection, to avoid trivial denial of service
attacks. If the a connection tries to allocate beyond that limit,
it is killed.
3. A simple mark&sweep gc. Should be fairly straight forward. Install
som runtime type info in the object structs, and do an occational
gc instead of sleeping in the main loop in io.c. Note that all
action is hooked into the callbacklists in io.c, so these lists can
serve well as the root set for the traversal.
For all these alternatives, note that the amount of data they must
handle is quite limited. There will likely be at most a few dozens of
objects for each connection that has to be considered.
ROADMAP
Some of the central source files are:
abstract_io.h Definitions of read and write handlers.
abstract_crypto.h Common interfaces for all cryptographic
algorithms.
atoms.in Textual names of the algorithms and services
recognized by lsh. From this file, several
source and header files are generated, by the
process_atoms bash script and the GNU gperf
program.
io.[hc] The io module. I believe that it is a good
thing to separate io from other processing.
This module is the only one performing actual
io calls (read, write, accept, poll, etc).
File descriptors are associated with various
types of handlers which are called when
something happens on the fd.
read_{line|packet|data}.[hc]
These are read handlers. They are hooked into
the io-system, and called when there is input
available at a socket. Complete packets (or
lines) are passed on to some other handler for
processing.
parse.[hc] Functions to parse ssh packets.
format.[hc] The function ssh_format is a varargs function
accepting a format string and an arbitrary
number of other arguments. The supported
format specifiers are very different from the
stdio format functions, and works with
ssh datatypes. It allocates and returns a
string of the right size.
lib/ Free implementations of hash functions and
symmetric cryptographic algorithms. See the
file AUTHORS for credits.
include/ Corresponding include files.
crypto.[hc] lsh's interface to those algorithms.
publickey_crypto.[hc] Public key cryptography objects.
lsh.c Client main program.
lshd.c Server main program.
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