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Brian Smith
nettle
Commits
36f09669
Commit
36f09669
authored
Nov 27, 2006
by
Niels Möller
Browse files
Updated vor nettle-1.15.
Rev: src/nettle/nettle.texinfo:1.34
parent
69ac8060
Changes
1
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nettle.texinfo
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36f09669
...
...
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
@end direntry
@set COPYRIGHT-YEARS 2001, 2004, 2005
@set UPDATED-FOR 1.1
3
@set UPDATED-FOR 1.1
5
@c Latin-1 doesn't work with TeX output.
@c Also lookout for é characters.
...
...
@@ -149,9 +149,9 @@ memory allocation. It doesn't do any I/O.
The idea is that one can build several application and context specific
interfaces on top of Nettle, and share the code, test cases, benchmarks,
documentation, etc.
For this first version, the only application using
Nettle is LSH, and it
use
s
an object-oriented abstraction on top
of the
library.
documentation, etc.
Examples are the Nettle module for the Pike
language, and LSH, which both
use an object-oriented abstraction on top
of the
library.
This manual explains how to use the Nettle library. It also tries to
provide some background on the cryptography, and advice on how to best
...
...
@@ -226,9 +226,21 @@ Gutmann, and hacked some more by Andrew Kuchling and @value{AUTHOR}.
Released into the public domain. Assembler for x86 by @value
{
AUTHOR
}
,
released under the LGPL.
@item SHA256
Written by @value
{
AUTHOR
}
, using Peter Gutmann's SHA1 code as a model.
Released under the LGPL.
@item TWOFISH
The implementation of the TWOFISH cipher is written by Ruud de Rooij.
Released under the LGPL.
@item RSA
Written by @value
{
AUTHOR
}
, released under the LGPL. Uses the GMP library
for bignum operations.
@item DSA
Written by @value
{
AUTHOR
}
, released under the LGPL. Uses the GMP library
for bignum operations.
@end table
@node Conventions, Example, Copyright, Top
...
...
@@ -324,10 +336,12 @@ Hash functions are useful as building blocks for digital signatures,
message authentication codes, pseudo random generators, association of
unique id:s to documents, and many other things.
There are several fairly popular hash functions. Collisions have been
found the the compression function of MD4, and in variants of MD5.
These functions are therefore not recommended for new applications.
The recommended hash function for new applications is SHA1.
The most commonly used hash functions are MD5 and SHA1. Unfortunately,
both these fail the collision-resistance requirement; cryptologists have
found ways to construct colliding inputs. The recommended hash function
for new applications is SHA256, even though it uses a structure similar
to MD5 and SHA1. Constructing better hash functions is an urgent research
problem.
@subsection @acronym
{
MD5
}
...
...
@@ -410,12 +424,11 @@ This function also resets the context in the same way as
@subsection @acronym
{
MD4
}
MD4 is a predecessor of MD5, described in @cite
{
RFC 1320
}
. Like MD5,
it is constructed by Ronald Rivest. It outputs message digests of 128
bits, or 16 octets. Nettle defines MD4 in @file
{
<nettle/md4.h>
}
.
Because of discovered weaknesses, use of MD4 is not recommended, but
it is sometimes needed for compatibility with existing applications
and protocols.
MD4 is a predecessor of MD5, described in @cite
{
RFC 1320
}
. Like MD5, it
is constructed by Ronald Rivest. It outputs message digests of 128 bits,
or 16 octets. Nettle defines MD4 in @file
{
<nettle/md4.h>
}
. Use of MD4 is
not recommended, but it is sometimes needed for compatibility with
existing applications and protocols.
@deftp
{
Context struct
}
{
struct md4
_
ctx
}
@end deftp
...
...
@@ -538,7 +551,9 @@ The last three attributes are function pointers, of types
@code
{
context
_
size
}
.
@end deftp
@deftypevr
{
Constant Struct
}
{
struct nettle
_
cipher
}
nettle
_
md5
@deftypevr
{
Constant Struct
}
{
struct nettle
_
cipher
}
nettle
_
md2
@deftypevrx
{
Constant Struct
}
{
struct nettle
_
cipher
}
nettle
_
md4
@deftypevrx
{
Constant Struct
}
{
struct nettle
_
cipher
}
nettle
_
md5
@deftypevrx
{
Constant Struct
}
{
struct nettle
_
cipher
}
nettle
_
sha1
@deftypevrx
{
Constant Struct
}
{
struct nettle
_
cipher
}
nettle
_
sha256
...
...
@@ -571,7 +586,7 @@ cipher is some ``feedback mode'', @dfn{CBC} (Cipher Block Chaining) and
of the most popular. See @xref
{
Cipher modes
}
, for information on
how to apply @acronym
{
CBC
}
and @acronym
{
CTR
}
with Nettle.
A stream cipher can be used for messages of arbitrary length
; a
typical
A stream cipher can be used for messages of arbitrary length
. A
typical
stream cipher is a keyed pseudo-random generator. To encrypt a plaintext
message of @var
{
n
}
octets, you key the generator, generate @var
{
n
}
octets of pseudo-random data, and XOR it with the plaintext. To decrypt,
...
...
@@ -668,7 +683,9 @@ setup of ARCFOUR is quite weak, you should never use keys with
structure, keys that are ordinary passwords, or sequences of keys like
``secret:1'', ``secret:2'', @enddots
{}
. If you have keys that don't look
like random bit strings, and you want to use ARCFOUR, always hash the
key before feeding it to ARCFOUR. For example
key before feeding it to ARCFOUR. Furthermore, the initial bytes of the
generated key stream leak information about the key; for this reason, it
is recommended to discard the first 512 bytes of the key stream.
@example
/* A more robust key setup function for ARCFOUR */
...
...
@@ -676,14 +693,16 @@ void
arcfour
_
set
_
key
_
hashed(struct arcfour
_
ctx *ctx,
unsigned length, const uint8
_
t *key)
@
{
struct sha1
_
ctx hash;
uint8
_
t digest[SHA1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE];
struct sha256
_
ctx hash;
uint8
_
t digest[SHA256
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE];
uint8
_
t buffer[0x200];
sha
1
_
init(
&
hash);
sha
1
_
update(
&
hash, length, key);
sha
1
_
digest(
&
hash, SHA
1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE, digest);
sha
256
_
init(
&
hash);
sha
256
_
update(
&
hash, length, key);
sha
256
_
digest(
&
hash, SHA
256
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE, digest);
arcfour
_
set
_
key(ctx, SHA1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE, digest);
arcfour
_
set
_
key(ctx, SHA256
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE, digest);
arcfour
_
crypt(ctx, sizeof(buffer), buffer, buffer);
@
}
@end example
...
...
@@ -874,7 +893,7 @@ key.
The key size of DES is so small that keys can be found by brute force,
using specialized hardware or lots of ordinary work stations in
parallel. One shouldn't be using plain DES at all today, if one uses
DES at all one should be using
DES3 or
``triple DES'', see below.
DES at all one should be using ``triple DES'', see
DES3
below.
DES also has some weak keys. Nettle defines DES in @file
{
<nettle/des.h>
}
.
...
...
@@ -1107,7 +1126,7 @@ ones without weak keys or other oddities.
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section Cipher modes
Cipher modes of
of
operation specifies the procedure to use when
Cipher modes of operation specifies the procedure to use when
encrypting a message that is larger than the cipher's block size. As
explained in @xref
{
Cipher functions
}
, splitting the message into blocks
and processing them independently with the block cipher (Electronic Code
...
...
@@ -1145,14 +1164,16 @@ C_n = E_k(C_(n-1) XOR M_n)
Nettle's includes two functions for applying a block cipher in Cipher
Block Chaining (@acronym
{
CBC
}
) mode, one for encryption and one for
decryption. The functions uses @code
{
void *
}
to pass cipher contexts
decryption. The
se
functions uses @code
{
void *
}
to pass cipher contexts
around.
@deftypefun
{
void
}
cbc
_
encrypt (void *@var
{
ctx
}
, nettle
_
crypt
_
func @var
{
f
}
, unsigned @var
{
block
_
size
}
, uint8
_
t *@var
{
iv
}
, unsigned @var
{
length
}
, uint8
_
t *@var
{
dst
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
src
}
)
@deftypefunx
{
void
}
cbc
_
decrypt (void *@var
{
ctx
}
, void (*@var
{
f
}
)(), unsigned @var
{
block
_
size
}
, uint8
_
t *@var
{
iv
}
, unsigned @var
{
length
}
, uint8
_
t *@var
{
dst
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
src
}
)
Applies the encryption or decryption function @var
{
f
}
in @acronym
{
CBC
}
mode. The function @var
{
f
}
is of type
mode. The final ciphertext block processed is copied into @var
{
iv
}
before returning, so that large message be processed be a sequence of
calls to @code
{
cbc
_
encrypt
}
. The function @var
{
f
}
is of type
@code
{
void f (void *@var
{
ctx
}
, unsigned @var
{
length
}
, uint8
_
t @var
{
dst
}
,
const uint8
_
t *@var
{
src
}
)
}
,
...
...
@@ -1216,8 +1237,8 @@ The message is divided into @code{n} blocks @code{M_1},@dots{}
than the block size. Except for the last block, all the message blocks
must be of size equal to the cipher's block size.
If @code
{
E
_
k
}
is the encryption function of a block cipher, @code
{
I
V
}
is
the initial
ization vecto
r, then the @code
{
n
}
plaintext blocks are
If @code
{
E
_
k
}
is the encryption function of a block cipher, @code
{
I
C
}
is
the initial
counte
r, then the @code
{
n
}
plaintext blocks are
transformed into @code
{
n
}
ciphertext blocks @code
{
C
_
1
}
,@dots
{}
@code
{
C
_
n
}
as follows:
...
...
@@ -1585,10 +1606,10 @@ Let's first look at how @acronym{RSA} key-pairs are generated. First
@code
{
n
}
is chosen as the product of two large prime numbers @code
{
p
}
and @code
{
q
}
of roughly the same size (so if @code
{
n
}
is 1000 bits,
@code
{
p
}
and @code
{
q
}
are about 500 bits each). One also computes the
number @code
{
phi = (p-1)(q-1)
}
, in mathematical speak, phi is the
order
of the multiplicative group of integers modulo n.
number @code
{
phi = (p-1)(q-1)
}
, in mathematical speak,
@code
{
phi
}
is the
order
of the multiplicative group of integers modulo n.
Next, @code
{
e
}
is chosen. It must have no factors in common with phi (in
Next, @code
{
e
}
is chosen. It must have no factors in common with
@code
{
phi
}
(in
particular, it must be odd), but can otherwise be chosen more or less
randomly. @code
{
e = 65537
}
is a popular choice, because it makes raising
to the @code
{
e
}
:th power particularly efficient, and being prime, it
...
...
@@ -1643,8 +1664,8 @@ large numbers (of type @code{mpz_t}).
@code
{
d
}
is the secret exponent, but it is not actually used when
signing. Instead, the factors @code
{
p
}
and @code
{
q
}
, and the parameters
@code
{
a
}
, @code
{
b
}
and @code
{
c
}
are used. They are computed from @code
{
p
}
,
@code
{
q
}
and @code
{
d
}
such that @code
{
a e mod (p - 1) = 1, b e mod (q -
1) = 1, c q mod p= 1
}
.
@code
{
q
}
and @code
{
e
}
such that @code
{
a e mod (p - 1) = 1, b e mod (q -
1) = 1, c q mod p
= 1
}
.
@end deftp
Before use, these structs must be initialized by calling one of
...
...
@@ -1688,6 +1709,7 @@ Creation and verification of signatures is done with the following functions:
@deftypefun void rsa
_
md5
_
sign (const struct rsa
_
private
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, struct md5
_
ctx *@var
{
hash
}
, mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx void rsa
_
sha1
_
sign (const struct rsa
_
private
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, struct sha1
_
ctx *@var
{
hash
}
, mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx void rsa
_
sha256
_
sign (const struct rsa
_
private
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, struct sha256
_
ctx *@var
{
hash
}
, mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
The signature is stored in @var
{
signature
}
(which must have been
@code
{
mpz
_
init
}
:ed earlier). The hash context is reset so that it can be
used for new messages.
...
...
@@ -1695,23 +1717,27 @@ used for new messages.
@deftypefun void rsa
_
md5
_
sign
_
digest (const struct rsa
_
private
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
digest
}
, mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx void rsa
_
sha1
_
sign
_
digest (const struct rsa
_
private
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
digest
}
, mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
);
@deftypefunx void rsa
_
sha256
_
sign
_
digest (const struct rsa
_
private
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
digest
}
, mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
);
Creates a signature from the given hash digest. @var
{
digest
}
should
point to a digest of size @code
{
MD5
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
or
@code
{
SHA1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
, respectively. The signature is stored in
@var
{
signature
}
(which must have been @code
{
mpz
_
init
}
:ed earlier)
point to a digest of size @code
{
MD5
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
,
@code
{
SHA1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
, or @code
{
SHA256
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
, respectively. The
signature is stored in @var
{
signature
}
(which must have been
@code
{
mpz
_
init
}
:ed earlier)
@end deftypefun
@deftypefun int rsa
_
md5
_
verify (const struct rsa
_
public
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, struct md5
_
ctx *@var
{
hash
}
, const mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx int rsa
_
sha1
_
verify (const struct rsa
_
public
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, struct sha1
_
ctx *@var
{
hash
}
, const mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx int rsa
_
sha256
_
verify (const struct rsa
_
public
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, struct sha256
_
ctx *@var
{
hash
}
, const mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
Returns 1 if the signature is valid, or 0 if it isn't. In either case,
the hash context is reset so that it can be used for new messages.
@end deftypefun
@deftypefun int rsa
_
md5
_
verify
_
digest (const struct rsa
_
public
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
digest
}
, const mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx int rsa
_
sha1
_
verify
_
digest (const struct rsa
_
public
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
digest
}
, const mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
@deftypefunx int rsa
_
sha256
_
verify
_
digest (const struct rsa
_
public
_
key *@var
{
key
}
, const uint8
_
t *@var
{
digest
}
, const mpz
_
t @var
{
signature
}
)
Returns 1 if the signature is valid, or 0 if it isn't. @var
{
digest
}
should
point to a digest of size @code
{
MD5
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
or
@code
{
SHA1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
, respectively.
point to a digest of size @code
{
MD5
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
,
@code
{
SHA1
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
,
or @code
{
SHA256
_
DIGEST
_
SIZE
}
,
respectively.
@end deftypefun
If you need to use the @acronym
{
RSA
}
trapdoor, the private key, in a way
...
...
@@ -2285,7 +2311,7 @@ Nettle defines a compatible interface to MD5 in
@code
{
MD5Final
}
.
Eric Young's ``libdes'' (also part of OpenSSL) is a quite popular DES
implementation. Nettle includes a subset if it
'
s interface in
implementation. Nettle includes a subset if its interface in
@file
{
<nettle/des-compat.h>
}
. This file defines the typedefs
@code
{
des
_
key
_
schedule
}
and @code
{
des
_
cblock
}
, two constants
@code
{
DES
_
ENCRYPT
}
and @code
{
DES
_
DECRYPT
}
, and declares one global
...
...
@@ -2413,4 +2439,4 @@ End:
@c LocalWords: DSA gmp FIPS DSS libdes OpenSSL ARCTWO Josefsson Nikos Andreas
@c LocalWords: Mavroyanopoulos Sigfridsson Comstedt interoperability Sparc IC
@c LocalWords: DES FIXME Rivest's plaintext ciphertext CTR XORed timestamp
@c LocalWords: XORs
@c LocalWords: XORs
cryptologists
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